Safeguarding security: 4 tactics for secure clinical communication and collaboration

I had the honor of speaking at the 2016 Becker’s Hospital Review Annual CIO/HIT + Revenue Cycle Summit, discussing the elements needed to truly secure clinical communications with some of the best minds in the healthcare world. With a number of recent high profile news stories announcing ransomware attacks in hospitals and health systems, security and the ability to secure clinical information is top of mind for many.

Those who oversee organizational data and IT systems recognize the importance of securing communication channels containing ePHI as they build a unified communications strategy. While security and regulatory mandates are essential elements of a clinical communication strategy, to create a truly successful strategy, the needs of those who provide care: physicians, nurses, therapists and others on the care team – in any setting – at any time – must be addressed flawlessly and securely.

To do so, there a few tactics to keep in mind:

Understand what the HIPAA Security Rule actually states

There’s been a lot of confusion in the industry when it comes to HIPAA compliance and communication. I often notice that many organizations think this is all about secure text messaging, which is incomplete. The Security Rule never speaks to a particular technology or communications modality, application or device. It is technology neutral.

HIPAA compliance is about the system of physical, administrative and technical safeguards that your organization puts in place to to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of all ePHI it creates, receives, maintains or transmits. Because of this, there is no such thing as a HIPAA-compliant app.

Understand care team dynamics 

Care team members are mobile and they employ workflows to receive communication based upon situational variables such as origin, purpose, urgency, day, time, call schedules, patient and more. The variables determine who should be contacted and how to do so for every communications event.

For this reason, third parties (hospital switchboards and answering services) and disparate technologies are used in organizations’ clinical communication processes. Understanding this variety of technologies and actors is key to accurately assessing your organization’s compliance risk. And, coming up with strategies to effectively address that risk is key.

Secure text messaging is essential, but it’s not sufficient

While secure messaging is an essential component of your overall strategy, it’s not sufficient because:

  1. it requires the sender to always know who it is they need to reach—by name.
  2. it requires the recipient to always be available to other care team members 24/7.

These requirements are inconsistent with the complexity inherent in communication workflows that enable time-sensitive care delivery processes, because they don’t address the situational variables I described above.

Secure messaging is only one piece of what should be a much larger communications strategy—one that should address clinician workflows and multi-modal communications channels for all care team members.

Your goal should be to enable more effective care team collaboration 

Organizations often focus on achieving HIPAA-compliance. This is a flawed objective. The focus should be on achieving more effective care team collaboration. If this is done effectively, achieving HIPAA-compliance will come along for the ride.

Six essential capabilities 

An effective secure clinical communications and collaboration strategy will include the following six elements.

  1. It will facilitate communication-driven workflows that enable time-sensitive care delivery processes. An example of a communications-driven workflow is stroke diagnosis and treatment. When a patient with stroke symptoms presents in the ED, one of the first things the ED physician does is initiate a communications workflow to contact the neurologist covering that ED at that moment in time, while simultaneously notifying and mobilizing a stroke team to complete a CT scan to determine if it is safe to administer tPA, the drug that arrests the stroke. Time is critical. Healthcare is chock full of these kinds of workflows, executed every day in every hospital by the hundreds and thousands.
  1. It will provide technology that automatically identifies and provides an immediate connection to the right care team member for any given clinical situation—this is nursing’s greatest need! Your strategy should be to bypass third parties and eliminate all the manual tools and processes used to figure out who’s in what role right now given the situation at hand. Ignoring this need means you won’t achieve adoption, which means your organization will still be at risk.
  1. It should extend beyond any department and the four walls of the hospital. It should enable cross-organizational communication workflows. This is increasingly important under value-based care where care team members must collaborate across interdependent organizations to deliver better care.
  1. It should secure the creation, transmission and access of ePHI across all communication modalities—not just text messaging. Enough said!
  1. It should integrate with your other clinical systems to leverage the data within those systems to facilitate new communication workflows. This is key to enabling “real-time healthcare.”
  1. It should provide analytics to monitor your communication processes and continuously improve those processes over time.

With these capabilities in place, secure clinical communication simply becomes another positive result of implementing a broader care team collaboration strategy, designed to address clinical efficiency and improve patient care delivery.

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3 “must-haves” for simplifying complex clinical communications

Part 3 of a 3-part series in conjunction with our nurse leadership webinar series.

Imagine a world where you launch the EMR, review a patient’s chart, and want to discuss it with the covering cardiologist that day. You click a link for the cardiologist within the EMR and it references that provider’s group workflow processes, reviews their schedules and monitors their momentary status to direct you to the correct provider. Then you type your message. The patient’s information is pulled from the EMR and is securely routed to the recipient based on their contact preference in that moment. It can happen – but this is not the norm in most healthcare facilities today.

Practicing medicine today is complex – clinicians need to consider an ever-changing landscape, federal and state regulations, not to mention the many different innovations designed to help streamline everything from care delivery to reimbursement. Adding to the complexity are the many different providers treating patients, working across various care settings with large care teams.

Given the vastness of these care networks, it can be daunting – albeit necessary – to coordinate care. One way to help connect clinicians in all care settings and improve care team collaboration is through a comprehensive communication solution.

It’s important to first understand why clinical communication is complex and why many of the technologies implemented today aren’t solving the issues clinicians are facing. Factors such as the patient’s reason for contact, the physician’s location, team coverage, degree of urgency and unassigned ER calls all impact the communication process.

Looking across varied care settings, people, processes and preferences also differ. Between inpatient and outpatient facilities, medical group practices and post-acute care, there are many variations in care team communication strategies and approaches that make it prone to gaps and breakdowns. In fact, one of the most frustrating parts of a nurse’s job is the daily battle to determine the correct covering provider.

In this complex environment with so many participants, the continuum of patient care demands that communication solutions span much further than the four walls of a hospital or practice. And as healthcare delivery models change, it’s imperative that care coordination, and the communication that drives it, be streamlined and efficient across all of these settings. When looking for a platform to simplify clinical communication, healthcare organizations should keep the following three “must have” capabilities in mind:

  • Span the entire care continuum: A comprehensive solution must address the needs of all care team members across all types of settings – from a single hospital to a multi-site system, as well as outpatient practices and care settings. They all have different demands and communication requirements. For example, larger practices and hospitals need advanced directory capabilities to bring the opportunity to coordinate care based on facility, group or ACOs, with the appropriate workflow processes built in. In addition, the solution should have the ability to generate real-time patient updates – such as when the patient presents to the emergency department, is discharged home, or when important results are available. This is essential to timely coordination of care. Finally, it’s imperative that the communication solution connect to the organization’s other HIT systems to maintain integration for alarms and alerts, such as if stroke team is activated. It’s critical that covering providers respond quickly and that a back-up process is in place.
  • Provide a standardized, yet flexible way to communicate: Clinicians should have flexible, yet standardized communication options that allow their messages to be routed appropriately and securely, and account for today’s technology. Gone are the days of referencing binders, faxed schedules or notes taped to the wall or desk. Once the communication process is initiated, the process should seamlessly connect you with the correct covering provider for the clinical situation at hand – whether through call, text or via a mobile app.
  • Address process complexities with intelligent routing: Schedules, workgroup rules, team mobilization requirements and escalation paths should all be configured so that you are connected to the right care team member with real-time accuracy. A solution with dynamic intelligent routing is able to deliver messages at the right time, to the right person in any given clinical situation. Clinicians should be able to customize based on their device and delivery preferences, and make changes based on their activity (e.g., what to do with a call while in the OR).

The goal is simple: Remove the variability, the hand offs and the touch points that introduce risk and opportunities for communication breakdowns. Initiate the communication in the manner you wish, and let the process connect you to the correct covering provider for your clinical situation at any moment in time.

While efficient clinical communication is a challenge, the right solution can lead to tremendous benefits for every care team member, as well as the organization. The solution must be comprehensive, providing standardization and the ability to streamline the communications process. By implementing technology that addresses these three areas, healthcare organizations will not only be able to improve clinical communication, but will ultimately improve the experience for patients, and the extended care team.


Interested in learning more? Read part 1 and part 2 of this series on nurse leadership in care team collaboration.

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Building an effective care team collaboration strategy: 4 focal points

Part 2 of a 3-part series in conjunction with our nurse leadership webinar series.

The need to unify physicians, nurses and other care team members through effective communication at the point of care is growing in significance. According to a 2015 Gartner report, 80 percent of providers report deploying fragmented communication technologies, which results in degraded care team communication and collaboration.

Collaboration is both a process and an outcome. It affects the patient experience, outcomes and care occurring across a variety of settings in an increasingly complex and mobile environment.

To resolve the fragmented and non-secure communication encountered in healthcare, true care team collaboration is dependent on consolidating disparate technologies into a single solution capable of directly addressing the communication obstacles degrading patient care today.

To some, this may sound like an unachievable goal, but with a strategic plan focused in areas that facilitate workflow processes and communication leading to improved patient care, it is attainable.

You may wonder, where do I even begin? Many organizations, in response to specific challenges, have deployed single-point technologies that provide only incremental gains. True communication and collaboration requires a comprehensive strategy, and to begin you must carefully evaluate your entire communication landscape. You’ll need to assess your current technologies, HIPAA compliance plan, near miss or sentinel event occurrences, nursing time to reach providers and consult notifications procedures – all of which will highlight your communication strengths and weaknesses.

Developing a comprehensive care team collaboration strategy spans four major areas of consideration. Failure to address any one of these areas may leave you with an incomplete solution. Each organization is unique, certainly, but departments and organizations must work together to create an environment ripe for collaboration.

  • Clinical – Mobile technologies are becoming more prevalent in healthcare settings, thus the need to leverage these technologies to facilitate secure communication amongst the care team is becoming increasingly important. A clinical communications solution should enable communication-driven workflows to facilitate timely care team communication. The solution should facilitate direct conversations among nurses and physicians via the preferred mode of contact – be it a mobile phone, pager, email or office land line. By triaging incoming calls and applying personalized algorithms for call placement, care team members reach the correct physician without searching through call schedules.
  • Operational – Once your plan is in place, bringing it to life warrants consideration and considerable forethought. A well-defined adoption strategy will be key to a successful implementation. Clinical champions help drive decisions and engage end users. Leadership engagement is often the most essential driver of adoption of any initiative, plan or policy. You should also consider and plan around timelines, specific tasks and resource requirements.
  • Technical – To achieve success, understanding and addressing technical infrastructure is a must. The strength of your Wi-Fi and cellular networks should be evaluated. Does your organization have a device strategy or do you have a BYOD policy? Do you desire integration with clinical systems and is the solution you are considering interoperable?
  • Financial – In any financial consideration, ultimate ROI and total cost of ownership are needed to justify approaches. When you close communication gaps across the extended care team to facilitate patient care collaboration, you can potentially improve referral revenue, decrease readmissions and avoid penalty costs. The ability to do mobile charge capture at the bedside, and to quickly and fully document exam and procedure details at the point of care will result in revenue recognition and improved cash flow for physicians.

There is no short list of considerations when it comes to building an effective care team collaboration strategy. However, if you focus on these four areas, gain support of leadership and identify a solution that hits these marks, you will be well on your way to effectively addressing your communication and collaboration needs.


Interested in learning more? Read part 1 and part 3 of this series on nurse leadership in care team collaboration.

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Nurses need innovative care team collaboration technology

Part 1 of a 3-part series in conjunction with our nurse leadership webinar series.

Six years ago, the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly the Institute of Medicine (IOM), recommended that nurses lead inter-professional collaboration and healthcare delivery improvement and redesign. They noted that nurses are uniquely positioned to do this since, given the care setting, they are quite often the primary patient caregiver. As such, they serve as the virtual linchpin of care—connecting the various care providing professions while coordinating patient care across the entire care team. Toward that end, nurses are responsible for over 90% of physician communications while directing over 80% of their own communications to the broader care team.

While some inroads have been made in regard to this IOM recommendation, there are formidable challenges impeding significant progress. As the industry transitions to value-based-care, nurses are being held increasingly more accountable for patient outcomes and experience. Paradoxically, they are concurrently being asked to perform more indirect and non-patient-care tasks which reduce the amount of time at the patient bedside—one of the strongest predictors of positive patient outcomes and experience.

One such activity is care team communication.

Specifically, nurses have reported that difficulty communicating with the care team has decreased direct patient care time. One survey study found that 75% of nurse respondents reported wasting valuable care time just attempting to communicate with physicians and other care team members. In part, as 50% of the respondents acknowledged, this is because they are unaware of the right care team member to contact for the clinical situation at hand. The latter explains why the majority of physicians reported being frequently erroneously contacted when not the right physician for the situation.

These recalcitrant obstacles to care team communication and collaboration have served to delay patient care and prolong patient wait times. No one is more acutely aware of this than the nurse.

Nurses quite often find themselves waiting for physicians to return phone calls/pages while their patient needlessly suffers. As the nurse struggles to coordinate care, no one is more cognizant of the impact of missed care or delayed transitions on the patient and the patient’s family. Moreover, no one is more handicapped by the limits of fragmented communication technologies that have not successfully overcome these challenges because they only address a small component of the overall problem. And no one is in more need, than the nurse, for innovative technology that is able to immediately connect the right care team members to facilitate timely collaboration.

The good news is that this technology is now available. However, when evaluating the various care team collaboration platforms, it is important to avoid common pitfalls. Here are a few guiding principles to keep in mind:

  • While secure messaging is a salient feature of the platform, it is not wholly sufficient to address these communication obstacles since it is dependent upon two flawed assumptions.
    1. The recipient, such as the physician, must desire to be contacted at all times for all situations every day of the week.
    2. The sender, for example, the nurse, knows who to contact in every single situation.
  • All of the care team must be on the same platform. As the IOM noted, “True inter-professional collaboration can be accomplished only in concert with other health professionals, not within the nursing profession alone.” This holds true for any other profession.
  • Most importantly, the technology must be purposefully designed to overcome the known referenced obstacles. To do this, it must be able to automatically identify and provide immediate connection to the right care team member for that particular clinical situation. This type of complex logic requires that for every single communication by every care team member, the contextual variables of the particular message must be analyzed in real time to ensure the communication is routed to the correct individual.
  • The care team collaboration platform capabilities must transcend the walls of any one facility. Nurses, as well as physicians and other care team members, quite frequently need to contact team members who work in and across other facilities and locations. The platform must be able to support this communication and the intelligent routing capabilities must extend to provide immediate identification and connection to these care team members when needed.
  • Ultimately, the care team collaboration platform must have proven functionality to reduce communication cycle times. Reducing the time to connect and close the communication loop translates into care team efficiency and increased patient care time. As every nurse knows, this means speed to treatment, improved patient experience and improved patient outcomes.

Nurses are indeed perfectly positioned to lead inter-professional collaboration and healthcare delivery improvement. However, it is critical that they are provided with the technology that will allow them to overcome all the challenges this entails.

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Let us not repeat the mistakes of the past—providing nurses with inadequate technology in response to which, they must find a work around—increasing their effort and workload in the endeavor. Quite sincerely, healthcare improvement and reform depends on it.


Interested in learning more? Read part 2 and part 3 of this series on nurse leadership in care team collaboration.

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The impact of a unified communications initiative on a health system

Listen to the podcast here, or read the transcript below. 

Introduction: You are listening to Health IT voices. Broadcasting live from Chicago, Illinois, and direct from the HIMSS15 exhibition. HIMSS – transforming health through IT. Today’s show is brought to you by Health IT Outcomes, bringing you the latest on the technology and people driving health IT. And now here are your hosts, Todd Schnick and Kelly Riggs.

Todd: All right, good afternoon and welcome back to the show. I’m your host Todd Schick, joined by my friend and colleague, Kelly Riggs. Good afternoon to you sir. They have saved the best for last.

Kelly: Oh yeah, we’ve put a little pressure on him as well, but I’m looking forward to a great interview.

Todd: It’s going to be a great conversation. Before we go there, Kelly, a quick shout out to Health IT Outcomes for making this great day possible.

Kelly: You bet. Really appreciate them having us as a part of the show, and you want to make sure you check them out. HealthITOutcomes.com.

Todd: All right. Let’s get to this great conversation. We’re now joined by Terry Edwards, the CEO of PerfectServe. Terry, welcome to the show.

Terry: Thank you. Glad to be here.

Todd: Glad to have you. Thanks for carving out some very valuable time at the end of a long day. I’m sure it’s been a good day for all of us. Before we get into our conversation, take a quick second. Inform the audience a bit about you and your background, and then give us the 10,000 foot view of PerfectServe. What do you do? How do you serve your market?

Terry: Sure, sure. Well, I’ll maybe start with a little bit of a story here. I got involved in interactive voice response technology back in the 1990’s and when I got involved in that industry, my wife is a registered nurse, and she went to work for a solo practice pediatrician, and I used to observe how she would manage the call process. She would take calls for this doctor on the weekends occasionally, and I would observe how the process worked with patients needing to connect with her around an urgent situation, and how convoluted it was. And so, that led to an identification of this problem around communications in healthcare and me then founding PerfectServe. So today, PerfectServe is a pretty meaningful company in the space. We essentially are a communication and collaboration platform that’s focused on uniting the care team members – the physicians, nurses, and other providers.

Todd: We talked a little bit before the interview and you were explaining to me it is an enterprise resource type of application. Clearly, it has to be very extensive to begin to mold so many different disparate pieces into one arena. How do you implement?

Terry: Yeah. The heart of the platform is its ability to enable what we refer to as a communications-driven workflow. And so, let me explain what I mean by that. Let’s say that you were to show up in an emergency department, and the doctor thinks that you might be having stroke symptoms. So, they’re going to then kick off a workflow that’s based on stroke diagnosis and treatment. And that involves reaching out to the neurologist who’s covering that emergency room at that time. There might be a whole stroke team who has to get in to perform a CT scan for you. And this is important, because there’s a drug that arrest stroke called TPA, and there’s a certain time window when that drug has to be administered. And if it’s not administered in that time window, bad things happen. So, an example of the communications part of that is contacting the on-call neurologist and mobilizing that team and getting them to come together to provide the care that’s necessary. So, PerfectServe would automate that kind of a communications process, for example. So that’s what we do.

Todd: You said earlier that your role is to unite the care team members. Now I think the average consumer out there would say, ‘Well, wait. That’s not happening already?’ I mean, how big of a problem is that?

Terry: It’s a big problem. In fact, we conducted a Harris poll survey that we released this week, and we surveyed nearly 1,000 providers. I believe about 750 were actual clinicians. The others were administers of large practices or hospitals. But of the clinicians, 54% of them, or 53% of them, often times don’t know who the right care team member is in a given clinical situation, and that’s because the workflows are complex. So much of healthcare is role-based communication, and who is in this role. Like, I talked about the neurologist. Who is in the role of the neurologist providing care at this hospital right now? Because that changes.

Todd: Well it’s interesting that you use the phrase communication and collaboration, because basically what we’re talking about is a variety of silos that, if they don’t hand off and transition well, you can lose a lot of valuable information along the way.

Terry: That’s right. That’s exactly right. So, communication to me and to us is a part of collaboration and this notion of collaboration is really more important as the industry shifts to value-based care models, and it’s not about the doctor or just the patient anymore. It’s about the whole care team. And so we’re really focused on trying to bring the care team tools that will allow them to be effective at collaborating with each other.

Todd: Well, you were reading my mind – the value-based delivery. That becomes a significant aspect of this. It’s really difficult to even drive that without the collaboration.

Terry: Yes, yes. Under a fee-for-service model, there’s not an incentive for providers to communicate with each other in many cases. But, if you have multiple providers who are all under, say, a risk-based sharing contract for a population of patients, then that’s going to drive new communication work flows and youth cases that aren’t occurring today. And there, you know, like contacting the neurologist. Some of them are very difficult to implement in an efficient way.

Todd: Absolutely. Well, lest you think I missed it, I did pick up on your secret weapon that Mrs. Edwards is a registered nurse. How critical has that been? Because they’re a critical link between the patient and the doctor. How valuable has her insights been to help you understand what really needs to happen here?

Terry: Well, she’s not practicing anymore, but she was integral to allowing me to, you know, to see the problem. But even as she describes it, within healthcare, I remember somebody asked her the question, ‘How bad was it?’ It’s kind of like, well, you don’t really know how bad it is until you have a solution, and then it’s like, how did we live without this before?

Todd: Hey, I want to get a little bit specific with you Terry. Let’s talk a little bit about PerfectServe. Talk about some of the features that you offer healthcare providers in a unified communication platform that other vendors may not.

Terry: Sure. Well, I’ll start maybe just talking about texting, because it’s been a segment that’s been emerging and it’s being driven by the rise in smartphones and, you know, we’ve all adopted it from a consumer perspective, and we incorporate those capabilities, but a true platform to really be comprehensive has got to bring in voice, it needs to bring in voice messaging, it needs to be multi-mobile. You’ve got to be able to initiate a communication via the phone, via a mobile app, via the web. It’s got to connect up to the primary clinical systems, so we receive data out of different systems, for example, and we’ll route that data accordingly. Say, a lab result, for example, or a new admission notification. So the other thing is, as you think about all these different modes, and then you have to do the various routing, you have to make sure that they’re all secure. So the issues around security aren’t just secure text messaging. It’s secure communications. And that, you know, in addition to the workflow capabilities that I talked about earlier, the ability to secure all the communications at an enterprise level is, we think, distinctive to the PerfectServe organization.

Todd: IT departments hyperventilate when you change their worlds, the finances of provider are very sticky and tricky and they’re limited with resources. How do you overcome some of those challenges?

Terry: Well, you know, within the hospital enterprise or large integrated delivery networks, you know, IT organizations, you know, they have their own way of buying and things like that and the buying processes and evaluation processes can be very, very challenging, but we have been able to work with some of the largest and most prestigious systems in the country, like Advocate, for example, here in Chicago. One of the leading health systems in the country – a leader in value-based care and we’re deployed across that entire system, and we’re employed across the entire system because we’ve been able to meet their needs, both from an IT security standpoint, and as well as a workflow standpoint.

Todd: So here’s an interesting question for you. We talk about outcomes. What physicians care about, ultimately, is outcomes. Is that the perfect metric to validate the efficacy of a system like yours or is there something else that we can measure and understand?

Terry: Well, what we’re doing is we’re enabling clinicians to speed the time to treatment, ok? So if you speed time to treatment, that will have an impact both on quality, as well as on operational efficiency. Now, there are a lot of other things that can contribute to both of those factors, but we’ve been able to do studies, for example, from an operational efficiency standpoint, where we’ve been able to improve throughput for example, in emergency room. We’ve been able to see hospitals see a reduction in code blue events. That stroke example that I gave, St. John Hospital and Medical Center, part of the Ascension health system in Detroit, when they implemented the process that I described, they were able to administer TPA to three times more patients who presented with stroke than they did the previous year even though the patient population was the same. So, by improving that communication-drive workflow, more patients walked out of that system alive who presented with stroke.

Todd: Sure. Speed becomes a very interesting metric. I agree.

Terry: Yes, yes. And we’ve been able to prove, we’ve done studies where we’ve definitely proven a reduction in cycle time. I had the opportunity to give a presentation earlier today here at the event with Memorial Care, and we did a before/after time motion study of nurse to physician communication cycle time, and they experienced a reduction in average cycle time by about two thirds. From 45 minutes on average down to just under 15.

Todd: Wow. Wow.

Terry: And the thing that’s interesting is these kinds of communications are occurring hundreds or thousands of time every day in a given hospital. So in Memorial Care’s case, I believe they’re probably about five to six hundred times a day.

Todd: Wow. Unbelievable.

Terry: And this is all about the care delivery process, and it’s the interaction that occurs in those communications that determines the, you know, the action that needs to be taken to provide treatment.

Todd: Well we’re here at HIMSS15. Is PerfectServe making any key announcements we should be aware of?

Terry: Yes, yes, yes. So we just announced our broader product development strategy and we’ve introduced that under the PerfectServe Synchrony brand identity. And that effort is about expanding from the communication-driven workflow for doctors to the entire care team, like we’ve described. So, we’re going to be rolling new capabilities out next quarter, and then those capabilities will be available by the end of the year or early the first of next year. And Memorial Care, who I talked about earlier, will be one of the first systems in the country to deploy this comprehensive solution. There’s not another one like it. Fantastic market. So, we’re excited.

Todd: Yeah, congratulations. We look forward to talking about that next year.

Terry: Great, great.

Todd: Terry, we’re out of time. Before we let you go, how can people get in touch with you should they have questions and where can they learn more about PerfectServe?

Terry: Sure. Well they can learn more about PerfectServe at www.perfectserve.com. I can be reached directly at 865-212-5700 or terry.edwards@perfectserve.com.

Todd: Terry Edwards, the CEO of PerfectServe. Terry, real pleasure to have you. Thanks for stopping by and joining us.

Terry: Thank you.

Todd: All right. Well that wraps our day one coverage here from HIMSS15. This has been Health IT Voices broadcasting from HIMSS live from Chicago. On behalf of myself, my cohost, Kelly Riggs, and all of us at Health IT Outcomes, this is Todd and Kelly signing off. Healthcare IT Voices will return tomorrow. We’ll see you then.

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